In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) refers to a method in which eggs that have developed to near ovulation are removed from the ovary and placed in a culture medium to fertilize them, and the fertilized eggs that have developed to a certain degree are put into the uterus. Because it used to be called "test tube baby", some people may think that this is a special treatment method. In fact, IVF-ET only plays a role in a small part of the complicated process to conception.
Undoubtedly, in vitro fertilization and cultivation of course require high-end technology, but now IVF-ET is by no means a special method, on the contrary has become a general treatment method.
So, what kind of method is IVF-ET?
IVF-ET is carried out in conjunction with the menstrual cycle. There are several methods for each stage, and several operation schemes can be combined.
Let's introduce the general operation process of OAK.
Menstrual cycle first day
■ Start of treatment
Start using Buserelin Acetate nasal spray. This is a drug that inhibits the secretion of hormones in the body and prevents natural ovulation. Use it every day until you stop using it two days before egg collection.
Menstrual cycle third day~
■ Promotes ovulation
Promote the development of follicles (pockets containing eggs) through oral medication or injection of hormone preparations. From the sixth day to the eighth day of the menstrual cycle, the size of the follicle was measured with ultrasound and the dosage of hormone preparations was adjusted accordingly.
When several follicles develop to a diameter of 20mm, the hormone preparation HCG is injected to promote egg maturation. It is generally believed that ovulation will occur 36 hours after HCG injection. Therefore, our hospital will inject HCG at night and collect eggs in the morning on the third day after injection.
Around days 10-14 of the menstrual cycle
■ Take out the egg Use ultrasound while observing the needle into the ovary to take out the egg. This is similar to a minor operation without hospitalization. Anesthesia is used during egg retrieval, so there is no pain or fear.
■ Sperm collection On the day of egg retrieval, please ask your husband to collect semen. After washing and concentrating with a special detergent, collect sperm with good motility and adjust the concentration.
■ Insemination The insemination is carried out by the cultivator in the afternoon of the egg collection.
The most basic method of insemination is called the traditional method, which refers to the method in which sperm adjusted to an appropriate concentration is scattered on the egg to wait for fertilization. There is also a micro-insemination (ICSI) method in which a sperm is directly injected into the egg cell with a fine needle under a microscope.
OAK will decide which method to use based on the patient's previous treatment experience and semen data, after providing counseling in advance.
■ In the traditional method, sperm adjusted to an appropriate concentration is scattered on the egg surrounded by cells. The sperm dissolves the cells around the egg and enters the egg cell by its own strength.
■ ICSI uses enzyme treatment to strip the cells around the egg, and then uses a fine needle to inject a sperm directly into the egg cell under a microscope.
■ Confirmation of fertilization Embryo culture
Regardless of the traditional method or the ICSI method, the development process of the egg after fertilization is the same. Two pronuclei can be seen in a normally fertilized egg cell: the "male pronucleus" from the sperm and the "female pronucleus" from the egg. When the two pronuclei fuse, fertilization is completed.
Sperm and egg fuse to form a cell (=embryo) after repeated cell divisions, and finally a new life is born.
OAK pays attention to each step of IVF-ET, records relevant data in detail, and carefully cultivates embryos until they are transferred to the uterus.
Day 2 after egg retrieval
■ Embryo Transfer (ET)
Embryo transfer is performed two days after the embryo has developed to four to eight divisions and the eggs are retrieved. The doctor and the cultivator carefully negotiate based on the relevant data of the culture, and select the best embryo to be transplanted into the uterus. There are also cases where the culture time is slightly extended, and the fertilized egg is transferred to the blastocyst stage 5 to 6 days after the egg is picked (blastocyst transfer = BT). To avoid multiple births, a maximum of two embryos are usually transferred at a time. If there are remaining embryos, it is recommended to cryopreserve, because it can be thawed and transplanted when IVF-ET fails to conceive or hope to give birth to a second child to reduce the physical burden. In order to promote embryo implantation after embryo (blastocyst) transfer, luteinizing hormone is supplemented by injection or oral medicine.
14 days after egg retrieval
■ Pregnancy test
It is determined by measuring HCG in urine and blood.
There are many ways to treat infertility, but none of them is guaranteed to be absolutely effective. Regrettably, IVF-ET cannot guarantee success. The status quo of infertility treatment is that there is hope only after repeated attempts. Success will become harder and harder as we age. This is a grim reality.
Based on the above facts, OAK believes that IVF-ET is still a very effective method. All members of this hospital work together and look forward to providing useful help to everyone who wants children.